A Comprehensive Analysis of α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP)
A Comprehensive Analysis of α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP)


α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP), also known as flakka, is a synthetic stimulant of the cathinone class. Its chemical structure consists of a substituted cathinone core with a pyrrolidine ring. This compound gained popularity as a recreational drug due to its potent psychostimulant effects and relatively easy synthesis.

Chemical Properties:

  • Chemical Formula: C15H21NO
  • Molar Mass: 231.339 g/mol
  • Appearance: Typically white or off-white crystalline powder
  • Melting Point: Approximately 170-176°C
  • Solubility: Soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)


The synthesis of a-PVP typically involves the condensation of an appropriate ketone precursor with a suitable amine reagent under controlled conditions. Common precursors include propanone and 1-phenyl-2-nitropropene, which undergo a series of chemical reactions to yield the final product.

Physicochemical Properties:

  • Psychostimulant Effects: a-PVP acts primarily as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, leading to increased extracellular dopamine levels in the brain. This mechanism results in heightened alertness, euphoria, increased energy, and enhanced concentration.
  • Addictive Potential: Due to its potent stimulant effects, a-PVP has a high potential for addiction and abuse. Prolonged use may lead to tolerance, dependence, and withdrawal symptoms upon cessation.
  • Adverse Effects: Common side effects of a-PVP abuse include anxiety, paranoia, insomnia, tachycardia, hypertension, hallucinations, and psychosis. Overdose can result in severe cardiovascular complications and even death.

Legality and Regulation:

a-PVP is classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in several countries, including the United States and many European nations. Its production, distribution, and possession are strictly regulated due to its high abuse potential and associated health risks.

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In conclusion, α-Pyrrolidinopentiophenone (a-PVP) is a potent synthetic stimulant with psychostimulant effects similar to other cathinone derivatives. Despite its recreational use, a-PVP poses significant health risks and legal consequences. Further research is necessary to understand its long-term effects and develop effective strategies for harm reduction and addiction treatment.

Information for preparing this article was taken from the site: https://www.dea.gov/factsheets/flakka-alpha-pvp

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